J&K records sharpest decline in child sex ratio


Jammu and Kashmir has recorded the sharpest decline of 8.4% in the child sex ratio across all the states in India, falling to 862 females to every 1000 male children, a recently published report revealed. 
The report “Children in India 2018 – A Statistical Appraisal” issued by Union Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation contains analysis of demographic data collected from administrative sources, surveys, and Census conducted by the Central and the State governments. 
It has indicated a significant trend of decline in the child sex ratio (CSR), an important demographic, indicator across several states and union territories. 
After J&K, Dadra Nagar Haveli and Lakshadweep has show a decline of around 5% in CSR. Punjab and Chandigarh have shown an improvement to the tune of 6% and 4.1% respectively since 2001 when the indicator for these two populations was very low.
The sex ratio for children aged 0-6 years is at 970 in Meghalaya and Mizoram and is relatively better as compared to lowest in Haryana at 834. 
States and union territories with significantly low CSR (less than 900) are Haryana (834), Punjab (846), Jammu & Kashmir (862), Delhi (871), Chandigarh (880), Rajasthan (888), Maharashtra (894), Uttarakhand (890) and Gujarat (890). 
The overall sex ratio calculated together among all age groups is favourable to females in Kerala (1084) and Puducherry (1038) but there are no such other states where CSR is favourable to girls.
According to National Family Health Survey reports, while overall CSR has declined by 2 points during the decade of 2005-06 to 2015-16, an improvement of 2 points is observed in rural areas for this period, compared to a decline of 9 points in urban areas. 
“At all India level, the sex ratio in the age groups 0-6 years and 0-14 years are 918 and 916 respectively whereas it is 943 for all ages and also is not favourable to females in any of the States and UTs,” the report says.
States and UTs which are having better CSR (greater than or equal to 950) are Mizoram (970), Meghalaya (970), Andaman and Nicobar Islands (968), Puducherry (967), Chhattisgarh (969), Arunachal Pradesh (972), Kerala (964), Assam (962), Tripura (957), Sikkim (957) and West Bengal (956)
As per Census 2011, the CSR varied significantly among States and UTs. During 2001-11, the number of districts with very low CSR (less than 800) has been reduced. 
However, there is a considerable decline in the number of districts with CSR of 950 and above.
Between 1961 and 2011 an improvement was observed in the sex ratio of population of all ages, but the CSR has been declining throughout the period, with 1% decline over the last decade.
“At all India level, the sex ratio in the age group 0 -6 years is 918 and the same in 0-14 years age group is 916 whereas all age sex ratio is 943. The sex ratio in rural areas is better as compared to urban areas both for all ages and children,” the report says. 
As per Civil Registration System , Sex Ratio at Birth denoting the number of female live births to 1000 male live births has been reported as 881 in 2015 at all India level.
In its endeavour to encourage birth of girl child, Union government has extended Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) scheme to entire state of Jammu and Kashmir. 
With this, the entire state has become a major beneficiary of tri-ministerial initiative of the ministries of Women and Child Development, Health and Family Welfare and Human Resource. 
The BBBP, initiated by the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi led BJP government was launched on January 22, 2015 with the objective to curb and prevent decline in CSR and to ensure women’s empowerment over a life cycle continuum. 
The key elements of the scheme include awareness and advocacy campaign, enabling girls’ education and effective enforcement of Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PC&PNDT) Act.

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